Population Reference Bureau Data Sheet Project

 

Two of the projected most populous countries in 2050 will be the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Nigeria. The TFR for Nigeria is 5.13, which is definitely higher than the replacement level of 2.0; thus Nigeria will most likely be an LDC in 2050. (Source 1) And these two will become LDC’s because in the classification system for the highest fertility rates of 2016, these two countries also showed up and because of this, these 2 countries are most likely to be LDC’s. In LDC’s, it is usual for the total fertility rate of the country to be high due to the lower economic status that would lead to families wanting to have more children in order to have more economic benefit since their offspring could help work on the fields or earn some form of money for the family.

 

All the countries labeled in the highest TFR’s are located specifically on the continent of Africa, where the environment is abundant with mineral resources but lacking the necessary resources for food production and industrial/economic/technological advancement, and that is the reason for these countries to be LDC’s. And since these countries were and still remain LDC’s, the total fertility rates of these countries will be the highest due to the economic opportunity native families have in creating more children: allowing there to be more work to be done on the farms, more income from individual jobs that each family member partakes in, and more. Niger, the country with the highest TFR, was also considered the least developed country in the world in 2015 due to food insecurity, lack of industry, a high NIR, lack of educational advancements, and only specifying in the agricultural industry for normal families’ incomes. (Source 2) Meanwhile, the countries labeled in the lowest TFR’s are located primarily in continents full of MDC’s: Europe and East Asia. Those located in Europe and East Asia are countries who are in Stage 3 or Stage 4 on the Demographic Transition Model due to having a low CDR but a decreasing or low CBR. And because they are in Stage 3 or Stage 4, they are MDC’s. In addition, these countries have more natural resources that allow them to economically and technologically advance; such as the Industrial Revolution in the 1750’s that allowed European and East Asian countries to develop into Stage 2 and eventually Stage 3 countries. Furthermore, countries with low TFR’s like Bosnia-Herzegovina take part in the EU which put these countries in a better economic status due to competing in a competitive private sector in multiple industries like the exports of metals, energy, textiles, and furniture.

 

The ‘U.S. Air Quality Improvements Led by Metro Areas’ and ‘Middle-Income Countries Face Biggest Air Pollution Challenge’ are interconnected because although the United States is an MDC and is a Stage 4 country, there are still problems where adoption of pollution control measures has not kept up with the increase of industrialization. The United States is the second-highest country in the world to have the most carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy in various forms including factories and other industrial technologies (Source 3). The United States is an example of a high-income MDC that was able to decrease the PM2.5 created by industrialization by utilizing eco-friendly and more efficient ways of utilizing energy and branching away from manufacturing. The amount of PM and PM2.5 in the United States have decreased overtime with the passing of government regulations in order to lower air pollution, and even though the United States, as a high-income country, was able to lower the pollution created, is still over the recommended limit of PM2.5 of 10 micrograms per cubic meter of air by 5 micrograms.

 

 

Africa Asia Latin America North America Europe
CBR 36 18 17 12 11
CDR 10 7 6 8 11
NIR 2.6% 1.1% 1.1% 0.04% 0%
TFR 4.7 2.1 2.1 1.8 1.6

 

Highest Lowest
CBR Africa Asia Latin America North America Europe
CDR Europe Africa North America Asia Latin America
NIR Africa Asia Latin America North America Europe
TFR Africa Asia Latin America North America Europe

 

Africa Asia Latin America North America Europe
CBR 36 18 17 12 11
CDR 10 7 6 8 11
NIR 2.6% 1.1% 1.1% 0.04% 0%
TFR 4.7 2.1 2.1 1.8 1.6
Percent Urban 41% 48% 80% 81% 74%

 

There is an inverse relationship between the percentage of the population that is urban and the crude birth rate: where the higher the crude birth rate, the lower the percentage of the specified region’s population is urban, and where the lower the crude birth rate, the higher the percentage. Gabon is an exception to this relationship where instead of having a high CBR and a low percent urban, the country has a high CBR of 32 and a high percent urban of 87%; however, Gabon is a less developed country due to having a high income inequality and so the majority of the population remains poor. (Source 4)

There is also a relationship that is ‘inverse-like’ where the higher the crude death rate, the lower the percentage is: like with Africa having 10 deaths per 1000 population also has a 41% urban population in comparison to Latin America having 6 deaths per 1000 population with an 80% urban population. However there is an exception to this relationship, hence why it is ‘inverse-like’ instead of inverse: although Europe has a crude death rate of 11, their percent urban is 74%, comparatively high to Africa having a crude death rate of 10 but only a percent urban of 41%. An irregularity in this pattern found in Europe is Iceland, where it has a relatively low CDR rate of 7 but a relatively high percent urban of 94; this may be due to the types of jobs Iceland has to offer in comparison to that usually found in Europe. Since Europe mainly consists of MDC’s, the occupations offered are more likely those that lack physical activity which create more chances of death due to degenerative diseases. However in Iceland, the economy is based on fishing and farming, so more of the national population has a job full of physical activity and thus are less likely to have degenerative diseases. (Source 8)

Again there is an ‘inverse-like’ relationship between the natural rate of increase and the percentage of the population that is urban, mainly where the lower the NIR is in a region, the higher the percent urban is. However there is again an exception to this relationship: in Latin America, the NIR is 1.1% and so the percent urban is 80%, yet in Asia the NIR is 1.1% but the percent urban is only 48%.

Usually the higher the total fertility rate, the lower the percentage of the population is urban; However in Asia, even though it has a low fertility rate of 2.1 like Latin America, it only has a 48% urban while Latin America has 80% urban. An exception to this unusual pattern in Asia is the country of Macao, where the fertility rate is low at 1.1 yet it is 100% urban. A possible reason for it not following the pattern usually seen in Asia is that Macao’s economy mainly relies on its gambling casinos for its GDP, and so is an MDC in Asia – which is usually seen as a country with LDC’s. (Source 9)

 

Africa Asia Latin America North America Europe
CBR 36 18 17 12 11
CDR 10 7 6 8 11
NIR 2.6% 1.1% 1.1% 0.04% 0%
TFR 4.7 2.1 2.1 1.8 1.6
Percent of Women using Birth Control (all) 35% 65% 73% 74% 71%
Percent of Women using Birth Control (modern) 30% 59% 67% 68% 61%

 

Timor-Leste is one of the countries from Asia that ‘goes against the norm’ for Asia because normally in Asia, the TFR is low at 2.1 and so the percentage of women using birth control in general is relatively high at 65%. However in Timor-Leste, the TFR is high at 5.7 and so the percentage of women using birth control is a lot less  in comparison to the norm in Asia; and this may be due to the fact that Timor-Leste has a mainly rural population so it is less economically advanced in comparison to Asia in general. (Source 6)

Morocco is another country that ‘goes against the norm’ in its specified region, which in this case would be Africa; the reason for this exception is that Africa’s TFR is high at 4.7 and so the percentage of women using birth control is relatively low at 35%. Yet in Morocco, the TFR is low at 2.4 and so the percentage of women using birth control is a lot more in comparison to the norm in Africa. Morocco may be an exception to the norm because it has a mainly urban population, so Morocco is a more urbanized and industrialized country in comparison to its region. (Source 7)

Montenegro ‘goes against the norm’ in Europe because in Europe, the TFR is low at 1.8 and the percentage of women using birth control is relatively high at 71%; however in Montenegro, the TFR is lower at 1.6 and its percentage of women using birth control is also low at 23%. This contradiction with Montenegro may be due to it being a less developed country based on its Age Breakdown informational chart from 2014, where the majority of its population was 0-44 years old. (Source 5)


BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • “The World Factbook: NIGERIA.” Central Intelligence Agency. Central Intelligence Agency, 28 Sept. 2016. Web. 02 Oct. 2016.

 

  • “The World Factbook: NIGER.” Central Intelligence Agency. Central Intelligence Agency, 28 Sept. 2016. Web. 02 Oct. 2016.

 

  • “COUNTRY COMPARISON :: CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM CONSUMPTION OF ENERGY.” Central Intelligence Agency. Central Intelligence Agency, 2013. Web. 02 Oct. 2016.

 

  • Van Hoogstraten, Jan S.F., Brian Weinstein, and David E. Gardinier. “Gabon.” Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1 Sept. 2016. Web. 2 Oct. 2016.

 

  • Allcock, John B., Thomas M. Poulsen, and John R. Lampe. “Montenegro.” Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica, 3 Aug. 2016. Web. 2 Oct. 2016.

 

  • East Timor. Ed. Editors of Britannica Encyclopedia. Encyclopedia Britannica, 9 Mar. 2016. Web. 2 Oct. 2016.

 

  • Miller, Susan Gilson, Abdallah Laroui, Nevill Barbour, Will D. Swearingen, and L. Carl Brown. “Morocco.” Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica, 19 Aug. 2016. Web. 2 Oct. 2016.

 

 

 

How do you think concepts of urbanization, economics, and other factors have an effect on population growths and migration in countries? And in what way are they beneficial or detrimental?

What do you think?

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